Anzen use references to make associations between a name and a value.
They’re declared with the
let pokemon_level <- 1
Anzen is an opinionated language. One of its opinionated choices is to prefer immutability over mutability, meaning that by default everything is immutable. As such, the above statement declared an immutable reference (a.k.a. a constant), whose value cannot be mutated.
Mutable references (a.k.a. variables) must be explicitly declared,
using the type qualifier
let level: @mut = 1 level = level + 1
The semantic type of a reference represents
the kind of values it can be associated with.
For instance, in the above example, the semantic type of the reference
Anzen’s built-in type for integer numbers.
The contextual type of a reference represents their capabilities (and that of their associated value),
in other words the kind of operations in which they can be used.
For instance, mutating a value is a capability that only mutable references have,
which explains why constants can’t be mutated.
While the semantic type of a reference never changes,
its contextual type can,
depending on how the reference’s used.
That’s why it is contextual.
In the following example, despite
level being declared mutable,
attempting to reassign it two statements later triggers a compilation error.
The reason is that it has been borrowed immutable in the second statement.
Therefore, the reference has lost its mutation capability in this particular context.
let level: @mut = 1 let const_level &- level level = 2 // error: cannot assign: 'level' has been moved
Notice the use of the borrow assignment
&- at line 2,
instead of the copy assignment
= that’s been used elsewhere so far.
Assignment operators occupy a very important role in Anzen,
and will be discussed further in a later chapter.
Anzen uses type inference to automatically detect the type (semantic and contextual) of all expressions.
Some situations however require an explicit declaration,
either to go against Anzen’s default typing rules (e.g.
or because the context does not contain enough information for Anzen to figure out the types by itself.
Such additional information are called type annotations:
let list: List<Int> =